Perceived Trustworthiness Indicator®


Assisting teams in creating trust-based cultures that lead to high performance requires an understanding of precursors to trust.

The Perceived Trustworthiness Indicator® (PTI) was designed to expand understanding of work environment antecedents to high team performance. Specifically, the PTI captures team members’ perceptions of

    • The degree to which team members manifest moral and ethical principles and just judgment
    • The degree to which team members perform with excellence

    A study with MBA students working in a variety of industries found perception of team members’ integrity – as measured by the PTI – predicted perceived team performance. All of the PTI scales predicted perceived team member job satisfaction.


    National Hospital Study

    A national study is underway to examine how the PTI influences unit-level

    • Staff turnover and vacancy rate
    • HCAHPS1 patient rating of quality of care
    • Fall rate
    • CAUTI rate
    • Pressure ulcer rate
    • 30-day readmission rate
    • Central line bloodstream infection rate
    • HCAHPS patient likeliness to refer

  • 1 HCAHPS stands for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey

    Drs. Lynn Varagona and Nancy Ballard believe that unit-level turnover rates, patient satisfaction with nursing care, quality indicators, and operational outcomes can be improved by creating trust-based work environments that lead to high-functioning healthcare teams.

    If the PTI correlates favorably with the above metrics, interventions can be put in place to

    • improve the work life of healthcare providers in order to
    • improve the patient experience
    • lead to better patient outcomes, and
    • lead to lower healthcare costs

    What’s in It for You?

    Hospitals that participate in the national study receive

    • an overall leaders’ report that presents hospital-level findings
    • personal results for units with a high-enough response rate
  • Nurse managers and leaders can use the findings to improve clinician and staff work life experience.


    Contact Us

    To learn more about the national hospital study or to request participation, contact Lynn Varagona, PhD, RN at

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